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Brown-Séquard Syndrome

Brown-Séquard Syndrome

General Features Brown-Séquard syndrome occurs due to lateral hemisection of the spinal cord Unilateral involvement of the dorsal column, corticospinal tract, and spinothalamic tract Causes of spinal cord hemisection include penetrating trauma from a stab, bullet, or...

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Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

General Features Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune mediated disorder resulting from exposure to heparin May result in loss of limb or life Typical onset 5-10 days after heparin exposure Caused by IgG antibodies formed in response to complexes of...

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Urinary Casts

Urinary Casts

Features Cylindrical structures Composed of Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein Formed in the tubular lumen of the distal nephron Some casts are benign while others may indicate significant renal disease Casts are characterized by the types of cells or elements which they...

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Pterygium vs. Pinguecula

Pterygium vs. Pinguecula

Pterygium: fleshy triangular mass that extends to the cornea. May interfere with vision. Pinguecula: yellowish elevated bump or patch that does not grow across the cornea. Treatment is not usually necessary but can be resected. Both are conjunctival...

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Epistaxis

Epistaxis

Epistaxis may be classified as anterior or posterior nosebleeds. Anterior nosebleeds are most common, usually occurring at Kiesselbach’s plexus in the anterior nasal septum. Kiesselbach's plexus consists of the anterior ethmoid, greater palatine, sphenopalatine, and...

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Preeclampsia: Pathophysiology

Preeclampsia: Pathophysiology

General Features Preeclampsia is classically defined as the new onset of hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. New onset hypertension with significant end-organ dysfunction (with or without proteinuria) after 20 weeks of gestation also satisfies...

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