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Pulmonology

Typical Community Acquired Pneumonia

Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an acute infection of the lung parenchyma acquired outside of the hospital or less than 48 hours after hospital admission. CAP is classified into typical and atypical subtypes, differentiated by their presentation and causative...

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Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) refers to increased pressure in the pulmonary circulation. It develops when pulmonary vessels become constricted and/or obstructed, which can occur in a wide variety of conditions. The increase in pressure is measured by right...

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Tension Pneumothorax

Tension pneumothorax develops as air accumulates in the pleural space, compresses the lung, and shifts the mediastinum. The air that enters the pleural space is trapped and cannot escape during expiration. Tension pneumothorax typically occurs due to a lung or chest...

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Adventitious Breath Sounds

Adventitious breath sounds are abnormal sounds that are superimposed over normal breath sounds. Detection of these sounds can aid in the diagnosis of various pulmonary and cardiac conditions. Crackles (Rales) are discontinuous, intermittent, “popping” sounds. Fine...

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Lung Volumes and Capacities

Lung volumes and capacities refer to the changes in lung volume during inspiration and expiration, and the absolute volume of air that the lungs hold during the respiratory cycle. These relationships are recorded using a device called a spirometer. The amount of air...

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