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Pityriasis Rosea

Pityriasis Rosea

Pityriasis rosea is an acute, self-limited eruption of oval, scaly papules and plaques with a distinctive morphology. Females are affected more often than males, and it most common in teenagers and young adults. Pityriasis rosea peaks in the spring and fall seasons....

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Clostridium difficile Infection

Clostridium difficile Infection

Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus which secretes toxins (A and B) that cause diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. C. difficile is the most common infectious cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Transmission of C. difficile can occur from contact...

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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent, intrusive, undesired thoughts (known as obsessions) and/or uncontrollable repetitive acts (known as compulsions). Obsessions and compulsions are time-consuming (> 1 hour in a day), and cause...

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The Menstrual Cycle

The Menstrual Cycle

The menstrual cycle is coordinated by a series of hormones that regulate the growth of the endometrium, the development of an oocyte, release and possible implantation of an ovum, and if pregnancy does not occur, sloughing of the endometrium and menses to allow a...

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Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) refers to increased pressure in the pulmonary circulation. It develops when pulmonary vessels become constricted and/or obstructed, which can occur in a wide variety of conditions. The increase in pressure is measured by right...

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Medulloblastoma

Medulloblastoma

Medulloblastoma is the most common type of malignant brain tumor in childhood. It is an aggressive solid tumor malignancy that develops in the posterior fossa, which contains the brain stem and cerebellum. Boys are affected more frequently than girls, with...

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Testicular Torsion

Testicular Torsion

Testicular torsion occurs when the spermatic cord twists within the tunica vaginalis, resulting in ischemia to the epididymis and the testis. Testicular torsion may occur in the absence of a preceding event or after minor trauma. Patients typically experience acute...

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Aortic Stenosis

Aortic Stenosis

Causes of aortic stenosis (AS) include degenerative sclerosis with calcification of a trileaflet aortic valve, calcification of a congenital aortic bicuspid valve, or rheumatic fever. Narrowing of the aortic valve obstructs blood flow from the left ventricle to the...

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Graves’ Disease

Graves’ Disease

Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder that results in the overproduction of thyroid hormones. It is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Women 20 to 40 years of age are typically affected. Thyrotoxicosis may cause unexplained weight loss due to an...

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