Monteggia vs. Galeazzi Fractures

Definitions A Monteggia fracture is a fracture of the proximal ulna with dislocation of the radial head. There are four types, based on the direction that the radial head is displaced (Bado classification). A Galeazzi fracture is a fracture of the distal...

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Rhabdomyolysis is the breakdown of muscle tissue with release of intracellular contents such as myoglobin into the bloodstream. The condition usually follows major muscle trauma, especially a crush injury. It can also be caused by long-distance running, hyperthermia,...

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Colles’ Fracture

A colles' fracture is a fracture of the distal radius with dorsal angulation. The majority of these injuries demonstrate a "dinner fork" deformity. All displaced fractures should undergo closed reduction, which helps limit swelling, pain, and compression on the median...

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Salter-Harris Fractures

Pediatric physeal fractures have traditionally been described by the five-part Salter-Harris classification system. Type I fractures occur through the growth plate. These injuries may present with normal radiographs and the diagnosis is often made clinically when...

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Scoliosis and the Cobb Angle

Scoliosisis a lateral curvature of the spine. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of scoliosis which typically has an onset after 10 years of age. The degree of curvature of the spine is determined by the Cobb angle. A curve with a Cobb angle ≥ 10...

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Sensory Supply to the Hand

The ulnar nerve supplies half of the fourth digit and the entire fifth digit on the dorsal and palmar aspects of the hand. The ulnar nerve supply extends proximally to the wrist. Dorsally, the median nerve supplies the tips of the first, second and third digits, as...

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Orthopedic Emergencies

Major orthopedic emergencies involve limb or life-threatening conditions. We can identify some of these conditions in a biker who has, unfortunately, been involved in a motorcycle accident. Look for: 1. Open fractures and dislocations 2. Hip dislocations (risk of AVN)...

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The Femur

The femur is found in the upper leg and is the longest bone in the body. The femur articulates proximally with the acetabulum of the pelvis to form the hip joint, and distally with the tibia and patella to form the knee...

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Barlow vs. Ortolani

The Barlow maneuver is a test used to identify an unstable hip that can be passively dislocated. The infant is placed in a supine position with the hip flexed to 90º and in neutral rotation. The examiner adducts the hip while applying a posterior force on the knee to...

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