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Obstetrics and Gynecology

Preeclampsia: Pathophysiology

General Features Preeclampsia is classically defined as the new onset of hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. New onset hypertension with significant end-organ dysfunction (with or without proteinuria) after 20 weeks of gestation also satisfies...

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The Menstrual Cycle

The menstrual cycle is coordinated by a series of hormones that regulate the growth of the endometrium, the development of an oocyte, release and possible implantation of an ovum, and if pregnancy does not occur, sloughing of the endometrium and menses to allow a...

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Ectopic Pregnancy

In ectopic pregnancy, implantation occurs outside of the uterus. The most common site is the fallopian tube, but other possible sites include the pelvic or abdominal cavity, uterine cornu, cervix, or ovary. Risk factors include previous ectopic pregnancy, history of...

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Fibrocystic Changes vs. Fibroadenoma

Fibrocystic changes (previously known as fibrocystic disease) is a benign breast condition consisting of fibrous (rubbery) and cystic changes in the breast. It's a catchall term that refers to wide variety of benign histologic changes in the breast epithelium. The...

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Naegele’s Rule

The due date or expected date of confinement (EDC) can be calculated using Naegele's Rule. Begin on the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP), subtract 3 months, add 7 days, and then add 1 year. Example LMP: February 14, 2015 Subtract 3 months (Great Scott x...

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