Visual Release Hallucinations (Charles Bonnet syndrome)

Visual release hallucinations, also known as Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS), refers to symptoms of visual hallucinations that occur due to vision loss from any underlying cause. The underlying condition may affect the eye, optic nerve, or the brain. Examples of...

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Medulloblastoma is the most common type of malignant brain tumor in childhood. It is an aggressive solid tumor malignancy that develops in the posterior fossa, which contains the brain stem and cerebellum. Boys are affected more frequently than girls, with cases...

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Horner Syndrome

Horner syndrome results from disruption of the sympathetic pathway that runs from the hypothalamus to the eye. Classic signs include miosis, ptosis, and anhidrosis of the affected side. Causes include brain tumor, brain stem infarct, pancoast tumor, cervical...

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Abnormal structures in Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia. Neurons communicate via chemical messages passed between two cells across a small gap called a synapse. In AD, abnormal cellular structures lead to a loss of synapses and...

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Sensory Supply to the Hand

The ulnar nerve supplies half of the fourth digit and the entire fifth digit on the dorsal and palmar aspects of the hand. The ulnar nerve supply extends proximally to the wrist. Dorsally, the median nerve supplies the tips of the first, second and third digits, as...

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Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a gradual accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that causes the ventricles of the brain to enlarge. The condition occurs with a normal or slightly elevated CSF pressure. NPH is characterized by a classic triad of dementia,...

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Multiple Sclerosis

Although the exact cause of multiple sclerosis (MS) is unknown, the disease is thought to occur as an immune-mediated attack on the central nervous system (CNS). The condition causes inflammation, demyelination, and axonal degeneration that can manifest through a wide...

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Cranial Nerves

The cranial nerves are numbered sequentially in relation to their position from the front of the brain to the back. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves which emerge from the underside of the brain and pass through the foramina in the base of the skull. Cranial nerves...

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