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Nephrology and Urology

Testicular Torsion

(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Testicular torsion occurs when the spermatic cord twists within the tunica vaginalis, resulting in ischemia to the epididymis and the testis. Testicular torsion may occur in the absence of a preceding event or after...

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Rhabdomyolysis

(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Rhabdomyolysis is the breakdown of muscle tissue with release of intracellular contents such as myoglobin into the bloodstream. The condition usually follows major muscle trauma, especially a crush injury. It can also...

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Renal Tubular Acidosis

(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) refers to a group of disorders affecting the renal tubules characterized by an impaired ability to acidify the urine and excrete acid. The condition results in a hyperchloremic metabolic...

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The Abnormal Prostate

(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Nonbacterial prostatitis is the most common of the prostatitis syndromes. Its mechanism is unknown and is a diagnosis of exclusion. Acute bacterial prostatitis is usually caused by gram-negative pathogens found in...

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Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease

(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is progressive and irreversible. It is defined as either kidney damage or a GFR of < 60 mL/min/1.73 m² for 3 or more months. The most common causes of CKD are diabetes mellitus (DM) and...

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Nephritic vs. Nephrotic Syndrome

(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Nephritic syndrome is characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli (glomerulonephritis) and renal dysfunction. The most common cause is immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy, also known as Berger’s disease, but other...

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