Nephrology and Urology

Testicular Torsion

Testicular torsion occurs when the spermatic cord twists within the tunica vaginalis, resulting in ischemia to the epididymis and the testis. Testicular torsion may occur in the absence of a preceding event or after minor trauma. Patients typically experience acute...

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Rhabdomyolysis is the breakdown of muscle tissue with release of intracellular contents such as myoglobin into the bloodstream. The condition usually follows major muscle trauma, especially a crush injury. It can also be caused by long-distance running, hyperthermia,...

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Renal Tubular Acidosis

Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) refers to a group of disorders affecting the renal tubules characterized by an impaired ability to acidify the urine and excrete acid. The condition results in a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with a normal serum anion gap. Type 1...

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The Abnormal Prostate

Nonbacterial prostatitis is the most common of the prostatitis syndromes. Its mechanism is unknown and is a diagnosis of exclusion. Acute bacterial prostatitis is usually caused by gram-negative pathogens found in other urinary infections and less commonly by...

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Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is progressive and irreversible. It is defined as either kidney damage or a GFR of < 60 mL/min/1.73 m² for 3 or more months. The most common causes of CKD are diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN). Other causes include recurrent...

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Nephritic vs. Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephritic syndrome is characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli (glomerulonephritis) and renal dysfunction. The most common cause is immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy, also known as Berger’s disease, but other causes include postinfectious glomerulonephritis and...

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