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Gastroenterology

Clostridium difficile Infection

Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus which secretes toxins (A and B) that cause diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. C. difficile is the most common infectious cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Transmission of C. difficile can occur from contact...

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Barrett Esophagus

Barrett esophagus is a condition in which intestinal metaplastic columnar epithelium replaces the stratified squamous epithelium that normally lines the distal esophagus. The condition develops as a consequence of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) due to...

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Types of Jaundice

Jaundice is a yellow discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by an excess accumulation of bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin (a tetrapyrrole) is a product of red blood cell (RBC) breakdown. Jaundice becomes visible when the bilirubin level is...

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Appendicitis

Appendicitis is the most common cause of abdominal pain requiring surgical intervention. It is usually caused by an obstruction of the appendiceal lumen due to fecaliths or lymphoid hyperplasia. Patients may experience sharp periumbilical pain that moves to the right...

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Acute Cholangitis

Acute cholangitis is a bacterial infection of the biliary tract that results from biliary obstruction. The organisms typically ascend from the duodenum. The most common cause is choledocholithiasis, although neoplasms, postoperative strictures, or other...

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