The Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis

The Adrenal Glands The adrenal glands are triangular shaped organs that sit on top of the kidneys. Each adrenal gland is composed of an outer portion called the cortex, and an inner portion called the medulla. The adrenal cortex secretes...

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Heart Failure: Pathophysiology

General Features and Pathophysiology Heart failure (HF)­ is defined as the inability of the heart to provide sufficient output to meet the metabolic demands of the body. Most often a chronic condition, but may also be acute. Heart failure leads to tissue...

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The Menstrual Cycle

The menstrual cycle is coordinated by a series of hormones that regulate the growth of the endometrium, the development of an oocyte, release and possible implantation of an ovum, and if pregnancy does not occur, sloughing of the endometrium and menses to allow a...

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Graves’ Disease

Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder that results in the overproduction of thyroid hormones. It is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Women 20 to 40 years of age are typically affected. Thyrotoxicosis may cause unexplained weight loss due to an increased...

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Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

This post is dedicated to my little niece, named Coral, who lives with type 1 diabetes. She's also the star of the comic! Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) occurs due to pancreatic beta cell destruction leading to an absence of insulin production. It most commonly...

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