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Cardiovascular

Heart Failure: Systolic vs. Diastolic Dysfunction

(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); General Considerations Heart failure­ is defined as the inability of the heart to provide sufficient output to meet the metabolic demands of the body. Heart failure may be classified by symptom severity...

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Functional Classification of Heart Failure

(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Functional Classification Systems The New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification is based on the amount of activity needed to elicit symptoms from the patient. The American...

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Heart Failure: Pathophysiology

(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); General Features and Pathophysiology Heart failure (HF)­ is defined as the inability of the heart to provide sufficient output to meet the metabolic demands of the body. Most often a chronic condition, but...

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Pulmonary Hypertension

(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Pulmonary hypertension (PH) refers to increased pressure in the pulmonary circulation. It develops when pulmonary vessels become constricted and/or obstructed, which can occur in a wide variety of conditions. The...

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Aortic Stenosis

(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Causes of aortic stenosis (AS) include degenerative sclerosis with calcification of a trileaflet aortic valve, calcification of a congenital aortic bicuspid valve, or rheumatic fever. Narrowing of the aortic valve...

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Heart Sounds

(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); The first heart sound (S1) represents mitral and tricuspid valve closure as the ventricular pressure exceeds atrial pressure at the beginning of systole. The second heart sound (S2) represents aortic and pulmonary...

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Cardiac Tamponade

(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Cardiac tamponade is an accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac that compresses the heart, impairs diastolic filling, and leads to a reduction in cardiac output. Tamponade is most often caused by penetrating...

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Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome

(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) is a pre-excitation syndrome of intermittent tachycardia that results from an accessory pathway (the bundle of Kent) directly connecting the atria and the ventricles. The anomalous...

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Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA, or “triple A”) is an abnormal dilation of the abdominal aorta, usually due to atherosclerosis. An aneurysm is considered to be present when the diameter exceeds 3 cm and the most...

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Statins

(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) are the most effective drugs available for lowering LDL cholesterol, with reductions in the range of 30 to 60 percent. They also reduce levels of VLDL and increase levels of HDL....

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Holiday Heart Syndrome

(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Holiday Heart Syndrome (HHS) describes the occurrence of an acute cardiac arrhythmia after an episode of acute alcohol excess or alcohol withdrawal. The condition may also occur in predisposed individuals that consume...

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Cardiomyopathy

(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic disorder with autosomal-dominant in­heritance but variable penetrance. There is thickening of the left ventricle and septum. The disorder causes diastolic dysfunction and...

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Tetralogy of Fallot

(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common cyanotic congenital heart defect. The main components of TOF are pulmonary stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, an overriding aorta, and a ventricular septal defect. A...

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