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Acoustic Neuroma (Vestibular Schwannoma)

General Features An acoustic neuroma is a benign Schwann cell-derived tumor of the eighth cranial nerve. Also known as a vestibular schwannoma. Usually unilateral In neurofibromatosis type 2, acoustic neuromas are typically bilateral. Signs and Symptoms Progressive,...

Monteggia vs. Galeazzi Fractures

Definitions A Monteggia fracture is a fracture of the proximal ulna with dislocation of the radial head. There are four types, based on the direction that the radial head is displaced (Bado classification). A Galeazzi fracture is a fracture of the distal radius with...

Heart Failure: Systolic vs. Diastolic Dysfunction

General Considerations Heart failure­ is defined as the inability of the heart to provide sufficient output to meet the metabolic demands of the body. Heart failure may be classified by symptom severity (NYHA classification) and by stage of evolution (ACC/AHA...

Functional Classification of Heart Failure

Functional Classification Systems The New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification is based on the amount of activity needed to elicit symptoms from the patient. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) classification...

Heart Failure: Pathophysiology

General Features and Pathophysiology Heart failure (HF)­ is defined as the inability of the heart to provide sufficient output to meet the metabolic demands of the body. Most often a chronic condition, but may also be acute. Heart failure leads to tissue...

Hodgkin Lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a clonal B-cell malignancy that resides predominantly in the lymphatic system. HL tends to develop within a single lymph node region and spreads in an orderly fashion to adjacent lymph nodes. A defining characteristic of HL is the presence of...

Typical Community Acquired Pneumonia

Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an acute infection of the lung parenchyma acquired outside of the hospital or less than 48 hours after hospital admission. CAP is classified into typical and atypical subtypes, differentiated by their presentation and causative...

Pityriasis Rosea

Pityriasis rosea is an acute, self-limited eruption of oval, scaly papules and plaques with a distinctive morphology. Females are affected more often than males, and it most common in teenagers and young adults. Pityriasis rosea peaks in the spring and fall seasons....

Clostridium difficile Infection

Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus which secretes toxins (A and B) that cause diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. C. difficile is the most common infectious cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Transmission of C. difficile can occur from contact...