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Pterygium vs. Pinguecula

Pterygium: fleshy triangular mass that extends to the cornea. May interfere with vision. Pinguecula: yellowish elevated bump or patch that does not grow across the cornea. Treatment is not usually necessary but can be resected. Both are conjunctival growths that may...

Epistaxis

Epistaxis may be classified as anterior or posterior nosebleeds. Anterior nosebleeds are most common, usually occurring at Kiesselbach’s plexus in the anterior nasal septum. Kiesselbach’s plexus consists of the anterior ethmoid, greater palatine, sphenopalatine,...

Preeclampsia: Pathophysiology

General Features Preeclampsia is classically defined as the new onset of hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. New onset hypertension with significant end-organ dysfunction (with or without proteinuria) after 20 weeks of gestation also satisfies...

Acute Sinusitis

General Features Acute sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses usually due to a viral infection, but secondary bacterial infection can occur. Often precipitated by an upper respiratory infection. Inflammation causes swelling of the mucosa leading to...

Osteoarthritis vs. Rheumatoid Arthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA)Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Degenerative disease that causes articular cartilage loss and joint space narrowing.Autoimmune disease that causes inflammatory synovitis. Heberden's nodes are bony prominences located at the distal interphalangeal (DIP)...

The Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis

The Adrenal Glands The adrenal glands are triangular shaped organs that sit on top of the kidneys. Each adrenal gland is composed of an outer portion called the cortex, and an inner portion called the medulla. The adrenal cortex secretes mineralocorticoids,...

Acoustic Neuroma (Vestibular Schwannoma)

General Features An acoustic neuroma is a benign Schwann cell-derived tumor of the eighth cranial nerve. Also known as a vestibular schwannoma. Usually unilateral In neurofibromatosis type 2, acoustic neuromas are typically bilateral. Signs and Symptoms Progressive,...

Monteggia vs. Galeazzi Fractures

Definitions A Monteggia fracture is a fracture of the proximal ulna with dislocation of the radial head. There are four types, based on the direction that the radial head is displaced (Bado classification). A Galeazzi fracture is a fracture of the distal radius with...

Heart Failure: Systolic vs. Diastolic Dysfunction

General Considerations Heart failure­ is defined as the inability of the heart to provide sufficient output to meet the metabolic demands of the body. Heart failure may be classified by symptom severity (NYHA classification) and by stage of evolution (ACC/AHA...