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Pleural Effusions: Transudate vs. Exudate

Classifying Pleural Effusions A pleural effusion is an accumulation of fluid within the pleural space Determining the underlying cause is facilitated by thoracentesis and pleural fluid analysis The pleural fluid may be classified as a transudate or an exudate,...

Pterygium vs. Pinguecula

Pterygium: fleshy triangular mass that extends to the cornea. May interfere with vision. Pinguecula: yellowish elevated bump or patch that does not grow across the cornea. Treatment is not usually necessary but can be resected. Both are conjunctival growths that may...

Epistaxis

Epistaxis may be classified as anterior or posterior nosebleeds. Anterior nosebleeds are most common, usually occurring at Kiesselbach’s plexus in the anterior nasal septum. Kiesselbach’s plexus consists of the anterior ethmoid, greater palatine, sphenopalatine,...

Preeclampsia: Pathophysiology

General Features Preeclampsia is classically defined as the new onset of hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. New onset hypertension with significant end-organ dysfunction (with or without proteinuria) after 20 weeks of gestation also satisfies...

Acute Sinusitis

General Features Acute sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses usually due to a viral infection, but secondary bacterial infection can occur. Often precipitated by an upper respiratory infection. Inflammation causes swelling of the mucosa leading to...

Osteoarthritis vs. Rheumatoid Arthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA)Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Degenerative disease that causes articular cartilage loss and joint space narrowing.Autoimmune disease that causes inflammatory synovitis. Heberden's nodes are bony prominences located at the distal interphalangeal (DIP)...

The Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis

The Adrenal Glands The adrenal glands are triangular shaped organs that sit on top of the kidneys. Each adrenal gland is composed of an outer portion called the cortex, and an inner portion called the medulla. The adrenal cortex secretes mineralocorticoids,...