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The Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis

The Adrenal Glands The adrenal glands are triangular shaped organs that sit on top of the kidneys. Each adrenal gland is composed of an outer portion called the cortex, and an inner portion called the medulla. The adrenal cortex secretes...

Acoustic Neuroma (Vestibular Schwannoma)

General Features An acoustic neuroma is a benign Schwann cell-derived tumor of the eighth cranial nerve. Also known as a vestibular schwannoma. Usually unilateral In neurofibromatosis type 2, acoustic neuromas are typically bilateral. Signs and Symptoms...

Monteggia vs. Galeazzi Fractures

Definitions A Monteggia fracture is a fracture of the proximal ulna with dislocation of the radial head. There are four types, based on the direction that the radial head is displaced (Bado classification). A Galeazzi fracture is a fracture of the distal...

Heart Failure: Systolic vs. Diastolic Dysfunction

General Considerations Heart failure­ is defined as the inability of the heart to provide sufficient output to meet the metabolic demands of the body. Heart failure may be classified by symptom severity (NYHA classification) and by stage of evolution...

Functional Classification of Heart Failure

Functional Classification Systems The New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification is based on the amount of activity needed to elicit symptoms from the patient. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association...

Heart Failure: Pathophysiology

General Features and Pathophysiology Heart failure (HF)­ is defined as the inability of the heart to provide sufficient output to meet the metabolic demands of the body. Most often a chronic condition, but may also be acute. Heart failure leads to tissue...

Hodgkin Lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a clonal B-cell malignancy that resides predominantly in the lymphatic system. HL tends to develop within a single lymph node region and spreads in an orderly fashion to adjacent lymph nodes. A defining characteristic of HL is the presence of...

Typical Community Acquired Pneumonia

Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an acute infection of the lung parenchyma acquired outside of the hospital or less than 48 hours after hospital admission. CAP is classified into typical and atypical subtypes, differentiated by their presentation and causative...

Visual Release Hallucinations (Charles Bonnet syndrome)

Visual release hallucinations, also known as Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS), refers to symptoms of visual hallucinations that occur due to vision loss from any underlying cause. The underlying condition may affect the eye, optic nerve, or the brain. Examples of...