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Spondylolysis vs. Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolysis Defect or stress fracture of the pars interarticularis May be unilateral or bilateral Most common location is L5 of the lower lumbar spine X-rays: AP, lateral, and oblique views “Scottie Dog” sign on x-ray (fracture site is the collar) Seen on posterior...

Leukoplakia vs. Oral Candidiasis

Oral Leukoplakia Flat, white lesions that cannot be brushed from the oral mucosa Typically painless Associated with tobacco and alcohol use Associated with squamous cell carcinoma Erythroplakia: similar lesions, but with a red appearance Carry a higher risk of...

Retinal Detachment

General Retinal detachment is a separation of the neurosensory retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium and choroid Ophthalmogic emergency: without correction, permanent vision loss may occur in affected neurons Types Rhegmatogenous (most common type):...

Brown-Séquard Syndrome

General Features Brown-Séquard syndrome occurs due to lateral hemisection of the spinal cord Unilateral involvement of the dorsal column, corticospinal tract, and spinothalamic tract Causes of spinal cord hemisection include penetrating trauma from a stab, bullet, or...

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

General Features Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune mediated disorder resulting from exposure to heparin May result in loss of limb or life Typical onset 5-10 days after heparin exposure Caused by IgG antibodies formed in response to complexes of...

Polymyositis vs. Dermatomyositis (Audiovisual Medcomic)

General Features Inflammatory myopathies with symmetric proximal weakness Involves muscle fiber destruction and inflammatory infiltration of muscles May cause patients trouble rising from chairs, climbing stairs, and combing hair Myalgias Occur more frequently in...

Urinary Casts

Features Cylindrical structures Composed of Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein Formed in the tubular lumen of the distal nephron Some casts are benign while others may indicate significant renal disease Casts are characterized by the types of cells or elements which they...

Hereditary Hemochromatosis vs. Wilson Disease

General Features Hereditary hemochromatosis: disorder of iron overload Accumulation of iron resulting in toxicity of the liver, pancreas, joints, skin, heart, and endocrine organs Wilson disease (hepatolenticular degeneration): disorder of copper overload Accumulation...

Pleural Effusions: Transudate vs. Exudate

Classifying Pleural Effusions A pleural effusion is an accumulation of fluid within the pleural space Determining the underlying cause is facilitated by thoracentesis and pleural fluid analysis The pleural fluid may be classified as a transudate or an exudate,...