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Pterygium vs. Pinguecula

Pterygium vs. Pinguecula

Pterygium: fleshy triangular mass that extends to the cornea. May interfere with vision. Pinguecula: yellowish elevated bump or patch that does not grow across the cornea. Treatment is not usually necessary but can be resected. Both are conjunctival...

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Epistaxis

Epistaxis

Epistaxis may be classified as anterior or posterior nosebleeds. Anterior nosebleeds are most common, usually occurring at Kiesselbach’s plexus in the anterior nasal septum. Kiesselbach's plexus consists of the anterior ethmoid, greater palatine, sphenopalatine, and...

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Preeclampsia: Pathophysiology

Preeclampsia: Pathophysiology

General Features Preeclampsia is classically defined as the new onset of hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. New onset hypertension with significant end-organ dysfunction (with or without proteinuria) after 20 weeks of gestation also satisfies...

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Acute Sinusitis

Acute Sinusitis

General Features Acute sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses usually due to a viral infection, but secondary bacterial infection can occur. Often precipitated by an upper respiratory infection. Inflammation causes swelling of the mucosa leading to...

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Monteggia vs. Galeazzi Fractures

Monteggia vs. Galeazzi Fractures

Definitions A Monteggia fracture is a fracture of the proximal ulna with dislocation of the radial head. There are four types, based on the direction that the radial head is displaced (Bado classification). A Galeazzi fracture is a fracture of the distal...

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Heart Failure: Pathophysiology

Heart Failure: Pathophysiology

General Features and Pathophysiology Heart failure (HF)­ is defined as the inability of the heart to provide sufficient output to meet the metabolic demands of the body. Most often a chronic condition, but may also be acute. Heart failure leads to tissue...

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Hodgkin Lymphoma

Hodgkin Lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a clonal B-cell malignancy that resides predominantly in the lymphatic system. HL tends to develop within a single lymph node region and spreads in an orderly fashion to adjacent lymph nodes. A defining characteristic of HL is the presence of...

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Typical Community Acquired Pneumonia

Typical Community Acquired Pneumonia

Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an acute infection of the lung parenchyma acquired outside of the hospital or less than 48 hours after hospital admission. CAP is classified into typical and atypical subtypes, differentiated by their presentation and causative...

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Pityriasis Rosea

Pityriasis Rosea

Pityriasis rosea is an acute, self-limited eruption of oval, scaly papules and plaques with a distinctive morphology. Females are affected more often than males, and it most common in teenagers and young adults. Pityriasis rosea peaks in the spring and fall seasons....

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Clostridium difficile Infection

Clostridium difficile Infection

Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus which secretes toxins (A and B) that cause diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. C. difficile is the most common infectious cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Transmission of C. difficile can occur from contact...

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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent, intrusive, undesired thoughts (known as obsessions) and/or uncontrollable repetitive acts (known as compulsions). Obsessions and compulsions are time-consuming (> 1 hour in a day), and cause...

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The Menstrual Cycle

The Menstrual Cycle

The menstrual cycle is coordinated by a series of hormones that regulate the growth of the endometrium, the development of an oocyte, release and possible implantation of an ovum, and if pregnancy does not occur, sloughing of the endometrium and menses to allow a...

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Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) refers to increased pressure in the pulmonary circulation. It develops when pulmonary vessels become constricted and/or obstructed, which can occur in a wide variety of conditions. The increase in pressure is measured by right...

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Medulloblastoma

Medulloblastoma

Medulloblastoma is the most common type of malignant brain tumor in childhood. It is an aggressive solid tumor malignancy that develops in the posterior fossa, which contains the brain stem and cerebellum. Boys are affected more frequently than girls, with cases...

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Testicular Torsion

Testicular Torsion

Testicular torsion occurs when the spermatic cord twists within the tunica vaginalis, resulting in ischemia to the epididymis and the testis. Testicular torsion may occur in the absence of a preceding event or after minor trauma. Patients typically experience acute...

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Aortic Stenosis

Aortic Stenosis

Causes of aortic stenosis (AS) include degenerative sclerosis with calcification of a trileaflet aortic valve, calcification of a congenital aortic bicuspid valve, or rheumatic fever. Narrowing of the aortic valve obstructs blood flow from the left ventricle to the...

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Graves’ Disease

Graves’ Disease

Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder that results in the overproduction of thyroid hormones. It is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Women 20 to 40 years of age are typically affected. Thyrotoxicosis may cause unexplained weight loss due to an increased...

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Wound Closure

Wound Closure

The three types of wound healing: 1. Primary intention - the wound closed immediately in some manner (e.g. suture, Steri-Strips, staples, glue) 2. Secondary intention - the wound is left open and allowed to heal by granulation, epithelialization, and contraction. 3....

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CREST Syndrome

CREST Syndrome

CREST syndrome (limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis): Calcinosis: calcium deposits in the skin and tissues. Raynaud’s phenomenon: an exaggerated vascular response to cold temperature or emotional stress which may manifest as white-blue-red transitions in skin color....

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Rhabdomyolysis

Rhabdomyolysis

Rhabdomyolysis is the breakdown of muscle tissue with release of intracellular contents such as myoglobin into the bloodstream. The condition usually follows major muscle trauma, especially a crush injury. It can also be caused by long-distance running, hyperthermia,...

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Colles’ Fracture

Colles’ Fracture

A colles' fracture is a fracture of the distal radius with dorsal angulation. The majority of these injuries demonstrate a "dinner fork" deformity. All displaced fractures should undergo closed reduction, which helps limit swelling, pain, and compression on the median...

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Renal Tubular Acidosis

Renal Tubular Acidosis

Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) refers to a group of disorders affecting the renal tubules characterized by an impaired ability to acidify the urine and excrete acid. The condition results in a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with a normal serum anion gap. Type 1...

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